Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Principle, Procedure, Result

The Phenylalanine Deaminase (PDA) test can be utilized to identify Gram-negative bacilli that are urea-positive due to the capacity of microorganisms to generate phenyl-pyruvic acids through the process of oxidative deamination. The test is also referred to as the phenyl-pyruvic acids (PPA) test. Phenylalanine is an amino acid that when deaminated through oxidase enzymes, produces … Read more

Epidermophyton floccosum

Epidermophyton floccosum is a type of filamentous fungus which causes nail and skin infection in human beings. The anthropophilic dermatophyte may cause diseases like tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) and tinea cruris, tinea corporis and even onychomycosis. The diagnostic methods for fungal infection are physical examination, testing for culture, and molecular examination. Treatment for fungal infections … Read more

Gibbs Free Energy

Gibbs free energy is also referred to as the Gibbs function. Gibbs energy, also known as free enthalpy, is the measurement used to determine the highest amount of work that can be done in a thermodynamic process when temperatures and pressures remain constant. Gibbs free energy can be identified by the symbol “G”. Its value … Read more

Amoeba Staining, Fixing, Techniques

Amoeba (less often spelled ameba, or amoeba, plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae) is often referred to as an amoeboid, is kind of unicellular organism that has the capacity of changing its form, mostly by retracting and expanding pseudopods. Amoebae do not belong to a single taxonomic class, they are found in all major lineages of the … Read more

Amazon faces worker demands — from shareholders

Listen to the article 7 min This audio is auto-generated. Please let us know if you have feedback. Union regulators aren’t the only Amazon stakeholders demanding changes to its workplace policies, thanks in part to a shift in focus at the Securities and Exchange Commission. At its annual shareholders meeting later this month, Amazon will … Read more

Foodborne Viruses- Food Poisoning by Viruses

Home » Food Microbiology » Foodborne Viruses- Food Poisoning by Viruses Human enteric viruses are the major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis also known as stomach flu and are transmitted via food and waterborne route. Foodborne viruses include the human noroviruses (HNoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), Aichi virus (AiV), astroviruses, … Read more

Foodborne Giardiasis- Food Poisoning by Giardia species

Home » Food Microbiology » Foodborne Giardiasis- Food Poisoning by Giardia species Parasites are widely spread in the environment and are responsible for causing diseases associated with diarrheal illness. Food-borne and water-borne parasites are mainly associated with the disease and are the greatest concern in food production. Parasitic protozoans cause the greatest risk to human … Read more

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)- An Overview

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. Most UTIs are restricted to infection of the bladder (cystitis), though infection may occur in any area of ​​the urinary tract, from the kidney … Read more